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En Café, los NPK Solubles Reemplazan al NPK Granulado en la Mitad de la Dosis Aplicada.

A continuación se presenta una selección de investigaciones científicas que demuestran el efecto de los nutrientes y desbalances nutricionales sobre el rendimiento y calidad del café, además la importancia de elegir productos de nutrición vegetal de especialidad (NVE) adecuados.

A efectos de conocer la respuesta sobre el rendimiento del cultivo de café a la aplicación de diferentes fuentes NPK granuladas y solubles y en dosis disminuidas, se realizó un ensayo de campo en la Finca Cafetalera Hamburgo de la localidad de Tapachula, Estado de Chiapas, México.

La variedad de café fue Catuai, recepa 2009, con una densidad de 3.600 plantas/há. Los tratamientos planteados se describen en el Cuadro 1. En este cuadro, es importante saber que la dosis indicada por tratamiento fue dividida por 2 partes iguales: 50% al inicio de crecimiento de fruto (25 mayo 2011) y 50% al llenado de fruto (17 agosto 2011).

Treatment

Formula

Type of fertiliser

Dose

N-total

N-NO3

N-NH4

N-NH3

P2O5

K2O

CaO

MgO

 

 

 

Kg/ha

Kg/ha

Source

Kg/ha

T1

22-6-21+2%CaO+2%MgO

Granular

251

55

 

6

49

15

52

KCl

6

6

T2

19-5-18+2%CaO+2%MgO

291

55

30

25

 

15

52

KNO3

6

6

T3

18-5-17+2%CaO+2%MgO

Water soluble

306

55

30

25

 

15

52

Ultrasol® NKS

6

6

T4 (75%*T3)

18-5-17+2%CaO+2%MgO

230

41

23

19

 

12

39

Ultrasol® NKS

5

5

T5 (50%*T3)

18-5-17+2%CaO+2%MgO

153

28

15

12

 

8

26

Ultrasol® NKS

3

3

Table 1. The NPK treatments.


Application with granular fertilisers (T1 and T2). / Figure 2. Application with water-soluble fertilisers (T3, T4 and T5)
Figure 1. Application with granular fertilisers (T1 and T2). / Figure 2. Application with water-soluble fertilisers (T3, T4 and T5).

The treatments were applied manually in accordance with the standard practices at the farm. The treatments T1 and T2 consisted of granular fertilisers (Fig. 1); T3, T4 and T5 were performed with water-soluble fertilisers (Fig. 2). The fertiliser variants under study implied 5 treatments which were arranged in a completely randomized design with 10 repetitions each; the plant being the experimental unit. There were 3 hand-picked fruit harvests, the first on 18th November 2011, the second on 19th December 2011 and the third on 18th January 2012.

Yield of coffee berries per treatment
Figure 3. Yield of coffee berries per treatment.
Agronomic Analysis and Conclusions.

The fruit yield for every treatment (Fig. 3) was analyzed according to the ANOVA test and the differences between the means using the LSD test. There were only significant differences (P = 0,05) found between the treatments T3 and T5. Despite the above, it should be noted that T5 produced the highest yield, taking into account that only 50% of the N-P-K-Ca and Mg units were applied, compared to 100% in T1, T2 and T3. On the other hand, it is also important to mention that T3 was seriously affected by the disease “coffee leaf spot” (Mycena citricolor), which decreased the yield of T3.