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In Indonesia, Sprays with Potassium Nitrate-Based Fertila Padi Increased Rice Grain Yield up to 18%

In 2013-2014, the effect of foliar-applied potassium nitrate-based Fertila Padi-1 (FP-1) and Fertila Padi-2 (FP-2) (Table 1) on the growth and yield of lowland rice (Ciherang variety), grown in a dry season (DS) and a wet season (WS), was studied at the Indonesian Centre for Rice Research in Sukamandi, West Java, Indonesia. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design, with 4 treatments (Table 2) and 10 replications i.e. 40 plots in total.

The Sukamandi soil texture is clay loam. The fields were continuously flooded with standing water (2-3 cm depth) except for the 10-14 days before harvest. All plots were conventionally fertilised with 300 kg Phonska (15-15-15) per ha at 5 days after transplanting (DAT) and with 175 kg urea per ha (applied at 28 and 42 DAT, 50% each); resulting in a total of 125-45-45 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O. In total 5 foliar sprays per treatment were applied; at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 65 DAT. The first 2 sprays were applied with Fertila Padi-1; the other 3 with Fertila Padi-2.

Table 1. Specifications of Fertila Padi-1 and Fertila Padi-2.

Nutrient
Nutriente

Composition (%)
Composición (%)

Fertila Padi-1

Fertila Padi-2

N

8

6

P2O5

18

18

K2O

18

28

MgO

3

3

S

4

4

B

-

0,1

Cu

-

Traces-Trazas

Zn

-

Traces-Trazas


Tabla 2. Details of the foliar tratments (FP = Fertila Padi).

Specifications
Especificaciones

T0

Untreated control, sprayed with water
Testigo sin tratamiento, asperjado con agua.

T1

10 kg/ha of FP-1 and FP-2 (5 sprays of 2 kg each)
10 kg/há de FP-1 y FP-2 (5 asperciones de 2 kg cada uno)

T2

30 kg/ha of FP-1 and FP-2 (5 sprays of 6 kg each)
30 kg/há de FP-1 y FP-2 (5 asperciones de 6 kg cada uno)

T3

60 kg/ha of FP-1 and FP-2 (5 sprays of 12 kg each)
60 kg/há de FP-1 y FP-2 (5 asperciones de 12 kg cada uno)




Figure 1. Spray applications in the trials field.

SPAD values indicating leaf chlorophyll content were significantly increased by spraying Fertila Padi at 30 and 60 kg/ha. Compared with the control, rice grain yield statistically significantly (P=0,05) increased when 30 kg/ha (5 sprays of 6 kg each) and 60 kg/ha (5 sprays of 12 kg each) Fertila Padi was applied; the 30 kg/ha being the most efficient in both seasons. The positive effects on grain yield of foliar-applied Fertila were greater (18% and 16%; 692 kg/ha and 606 kg/ha) in WS 2013/2014 compared to DS 2013 (12% and 9%; 582 kg/ha and 418 kg/ha), at 30 and 60 kg/ha Fertila (Figures 2 & 3), respectively. These yield increases were explained by a significant increase in the total number of filled spikelets per panicle. The treatments did not have a noticeable effect on the number of panicles per hill or on the 1.000 filled grain weight. Foliar-applied Fertila Padi did not affect the plant height and number of tillers in DS 2013 and WS 2013/2014.


Figure 2. The effect of the foliar sprays with potassium nitrate- based Fertila Padi on rice grain yield (kg/ha) during the dry season in 2013.


Figure 3. The effect of the foliar sprays with potassium nitrate- based Fertila Padi on rice grain yield (kg/ha) during wet season 2013/2014.